Vilnius (Vilnius) – the largest city of Lithuania and its capital, lying on average River Vilia (Nyaris) on the southeast of the country. His story is rich in legends and events, and the unique mixing of cultures led to the formation of a special style here both in the nature of urban development and in the traditions of local residents. Therefore, for many years, this second largest city of the Baltic attracts the attention of thousands of thousands of tourists. It is believed that in any other place of Eastern Europe on such a limited space there is no such accumulation of magnificent temples as in Vilnius.
The legends associate the formation of the city with the burial site of the mythical Lithuanian Prince Swinesor, who chosen for his grave, exactly the fusion point of Vilib and Wieliki (Wilna). Grand Duke Lithuanian Gedimine (Gediminas) After the hunt fell asleep on this hill and was a sign that commanded laying here the center of his possessions. On January 25, 1323, in his letter, the prince calls Wilna with his capital (before that the center of the state was located 25 km to the west of Trakai), in 1387 it is declared the city, in 1503-1522 it is surrounded by a fortress wall with a nine goal and three tower, And in 1579, the Academy and the University are based here, which makes the city a large cultural and educational center not only the Baltic States, but also many adjacent lands. More than once suffered from wars and epidemics, then the case passed by the Power of the Commonwealth, then the our Empire, he had heard the wounds and today its historical center was included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List as one of the largest (360 hectares!) samples of old urban architecture in Europe, and what is characteristic – most of its historical buildings were not turned into museums, and still perform their direct function. And in 2009, Vilnius, together with the Austrian Linet, was overlooking the European Cultural Capital.
- Panorama Vilnius
- Christmas fir in front of the Cathedral
- Night panorama of Vilnius business district
- Sale of products of folk crafts at the annual May festival
Ancient Vilnius (previously Vilna and Wilna) developed in a march of Vilib (Nyaris) and Wieliki (Wilna) around the castle mountain. From the crowned once of the upper fortress to this day, only 48-meter has been preserved Gedimin Tower (Gediminas, Gedimino Pilies Bokstas), folded from stone and red brick at the end of the XIV – early XV century. More than once the collapsed and rebuilt, now it is a symbol of the city and a unique historical monument, on the top tier equipped with an observation deck, with which almost all Vilnius is visible, and the branch is placed inside Lithuanian National Museum (Vilniaus Pilies Muziejus), telling about the history of the city. The castle itself was strongly injured during the siege of his Poles in 1660-1661 and in the XIX century was completely demolished. You can climb the mountain using a funicular starting on the embankment from the building New Arsenal (XVIII – XIX centuries.), in which the excellent is now National Museum of Lithuania (Lietuvos Nacionalinis Muziejus, WWW.LNM.LT), telling about the history, culture and customs of the country, Museum of Applied Art (Taikomosios Dailes Muziejus), as well as the office of urban tourist management. Another east is another cult place – Hill of three crosses, or Three-line mountain (Triju Kryziu Kalnas). In 1613-1636, three wooden cross, symbolizing the national and spiritual identity of the Lithuanian people were erected here. Repeatedly destroyed, in 1989 they were restored in this picturesque wooded place literally in two weeks using fragments of the old monument and are now one of the country characters.
- Gedimin Tower
- Fortress Walls
- Arsenal complex
- Hill of three crosses
In the southwest at the foot of the Castle Mountain Cathedral Square (Katedros Aikste), rebuilt on the site of the demolished fortress buildings and residential buildings in the XIX century. Around it in a radius literally couples of quarters focuses the mass of interesting historical monuments, among which Monument to the prince of Gedimine, Old Arsenal (XVI B.), Cathedral of St. Stanislav and Saint Vladislav SVENTO STANISLOVO IR SVENTO VLADISLOVO ARKIKATEDRA BAZILIKA, ARKIKATEDRA BAZILIKA, 1783-1801.) with Chapel of Saint Casimir (XVII in.) – Heavenly patron of Lithuania, erected right on the old fortress tower of the lower castle 57-meter bell tower (XVI-XVIII centuries.), actually rebuilt after the destruction in the XIX century Palace of the Grand Princes of Lithuanian (Valdovu Rumai, located in it National Museum of Palace considered the best meeting of artwork in the country), Art Academy of Vilnius VILNIUS ART ACADEMY), Church of St. Francis of Assis (Svento Pranciskaus Asyziecio Baznycia, XVI-XVIII centuries.) with ancient necropolum of outstanding people of the country, beautiful gothic Church of St. Anna (Sventos Onos Baznycia, XIV-XVI BB.) With adjacent Bernardian monastery and church (1506-1513.), located very close to the temples Monument to Adam Mitskevichu (1978-1984.), Church of St. Michael (Svento MYKOLO BAZNYCIA, 1594-1625.), library of the Academy of Sciences of Lithuania, the One-storey building of Cordhegardia (XVIII-XIX centuries.), and Palace de Reusov, or Shoiselle (DE REUSU RUMAI, SUAZELIU RUMAI, 1770-1794., Reconstructed at the end of the XIX in.).
- Cathedral Square
- Monument to the prince of Gedimine
- Cathedral building
- Church of St.Anna with Bernardian monastery
And just two quarters south of the church of St. Anne and the Mitzkevich Square, in a beautiful place at the radiy’s emitty, is Orthodox Cathedral in the name of the audit of the Mother of God’s Mother, Or simply Assumption. This is one of the oldest Christian churches of Vilnius, founded in 1346 according to the saint Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv. Regardless of decline and oblivion, which carried out a variety of functions, he was restored to the Metropolitan Money in 1865-1868 and now, except for his own direct function, often serves as a place of all sorts of concerts and the International Festival of our Spiritual Music (June).
Just in the quarter south of the castle mountain stretched a beautiful complex Vilnius University (Vilniaus Universitetas, XVI-XIX BB.) – the oldest and largest higher educational institution of Lithuania, whose inner courtyards and colorful buildings form a very characteristic and easily recognizable section of the urban landscape. From the west to it adjoins Palace of President (Prezidento Rumai, XVI-XX BB.) – the first stone structure after "The second baptism of Lithuania" In 1387, the first place to accommodate the Vilnius episcopate, and nowadays the official residence of the Head of the Republic of Lithuania with a beautiful courtyard and an extensive park. In total quarter, south is colorful Church of St. Ignatius Vilniaus SV. Ignoto Vienuolynas IR Baznycia), built in 1622-1647 and in the middle of the XVIII century, reconstructed in the style of lush baroque under the guidance of the architect T. Zharubrauskasa. And literally across the road north of the presidential palace rises Church of the Holy Cross (Svento Kryziaus Baznycia, Bonifratru Baznycia, XVII-XVIII centuries.), known for its miraculous appearance of the Virgin Mary and beating right inside the temple of the Spring, also considered beneficial.
- Catholic church of St. Catherine
- Joint Hall Square ensemble
- Presidential palace
If you cross the diagonal of a large quarter to the west of the presidential palace, then you can go to the complex Palace Radziwillov (Radvilu Rumai) in the style of the late Renaissance – the only pattern of this era in the city. This monument of the architecture of republican significance, built in 1635-1653 as a residence of the old Polish-Lithuanian nobleman, is now the placement by the branch of the Lithuanian Art Museum dedicated to the history of this dynasty and possessing an extensive collection of foreign arts of the XVI-XIX centuries. From here you can easily go down the street Vilniaus Gatve to the Southew S.Moniuskos further to one of the most beautiful temples of Vilnius – Church of St. Catherine (Sventos Kotrynos Baznycia, XVII in.) with the adjacent buildings of the former monastery Benedictive (XVI-XIX centuries.).
From the cathedral area through the town hall and then south to the former serf wall leads the old Ples Street, or Castle (Pilies Gatve, Zamkowa) – Home Artery of the Old Town and the place of concentration of a huge number of shops, galleries, museums, restaurants and cafes. In addition, walking on it you can see the neoclassical complex of the Lithuanian Foreign Ministry, several dozen old residential buildings – each with its rich history and characteristic decorative elements, several buildings of the Vilnius University complex, House of signators (1645-1876.), Gallery of the Art Academy of Lithuania and Catholic church of St. John the Baptist and St. John Evangelista SVENTO JONO KRIKSTYTOJO IR SVENTO JONO EVANGELISTO BAZNYCIA, 1738-1749.) with the largest organ in Lithuania and the bell tower of the XVII-XVIII centuries (height – 45 m, upwards gives the elevator to the top), with which the beautiful panorama of the old city opens, and inside Museum of Science with the only foco pendulum in Lithuania.
Then Pilies Gatve goes into the Didzioji Gatve street (large) on which attention attracted House Josef Frank (XVI B., Now here is the Embassy of France and the Cultural Center of this country), Orthodox Church of Paraskeva Friday (XIV-XVIII centuries.) – It was in her Petr I served a graceful prayer in honor of the victory in the Northern War and baptized Pradeda. WITH. Pushkin Arape Hannibal – a monument to him in the courtyard of the temple. Moving further to the south, you can see Palace of Counts Khodkiewicz (Chodkeviciu Rumai, XVII-XIX centuries.) in which the exposition is now located Vilnius art gallery (Fine art of Lithuania of the XVI-XX centuries), Nikolsky church (XIV B. – One of the oldest Orthodox churches in the country), a classic building Town Hall (Vilniaus Rotuse, 1788-1799.) on Town Hall Square, lying almost opposite Church of St. Casimira (Svento Kazimiero Baznycia, 1604-1616. – The oldest church of the city, repeatedly rebuilt), Palace Mikhala Pice (XVII B.), Big and Small Guild House (XVI B., Now there is a branch National Museum of Lithuania), Palace Abramovich (Abramaviciu Rumai, XVII in.) in which it is located Conservatory named after Yozas Tallat Clavpshi, as well as a number of colorful buildings of the XV-XX centuries. And behind the Town Hall placed complex Center for Contemporary Art (Suolaikinio Meno Centras) with an extensive exposition of the works of the new time and a good cafe.
A little south, already on Ausros Vartu Street, building National Philharmonic Lithuania, a restaurant Medininkai In a decorated sgraphito baroque building of the XV-XVI century, Uniation Church of the Holy Trinity and former Basilian monastery (XVI-XIX centuries.) with a massive bell tower visible from afar (XVI in.) 22.5 meters high. The deception of the area is the only preserved gates of the city wall – Acute Brama Ausros Vartu, "Gate Zari", 1503-1522.) and felt in numerous literary works chapel (1754 G.) With the miraculous way, the Mother of God of the Ostrobram, often referred to as Vilnius Madonna. This is one of the main Christian shrines of the country, the most important historical and cultural monument of the capital, as well as a very honored object of the religious pilgrimage of adherents of all denominations – for many centuries there is a custom to pass by a sharp brother with a uncoated head, which even atheists adhere to.
The complex is adjacent to an outstanding monument of architecture of early baroque – Catholic church of St. Teresa (Sventos Tereses Baznycia, 1633-1650.), which leads a special gallery built in classicism style (1829 g.). Nearby is the most important Orthodox Temple of Lithuania – Church of the Holy Spirit (1638-1640.), which is considered the only monument in the country the so-called Vilensky Baroque. There are also a special crypt with the relics of the so-called "Vilen Martyrs" (Orthodox Christians Anthony, John and Eustafius, executed in the middle of the XIV century – it was at the place of their execution afterwards and was laid Troitsky temple) and the last of the Orthodox monasteries operating in the Lithuania – Male and Female.
In the southwestern part of the Old Town, on SV Street. Mikalojaus Gatve, another historical monument towers – Catholic church of St. Nicholas (Svento Mikalojaus Baznycia), considered ancient Catholic church of the country. Founded before the adoption of Lithuania Christianity, in its modern form he was rebuilt in 1382-1387, several times reconstructed and restored, connecting the elements of Baroque, Gothic and Romanese style in his appearance. Now this small in the general temple is famous for its unique interior with three altars and beautiful sculptural groups, being a real center of religious and public life. Here are the statue of the Heavenly Patron of Vilnius St. Christopher, the sculpture of St. Anthony, the memorial stove in memory of the bombardment of the church to the bombardment in 1942. Chiotrans and Monument in honor of the Grand Duke Lithuanian Vitovt (Vitautas) of the Great.
In total, the Quarter of the north of the Church of St. Nicholas is a beautiful Catholic Church of the Ascension of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Svenciausiosios Mergeles Marijos Emimo I Dangu Baznycia, 1392 g.), a famous miraculous manner of the White Mother of God, a beautiful chapel of Suzin and the adjacent Franciscan monastery – ancient in the country. And in two quarters west is a complex Jewish Museum (Valstybinis Vilniaus Gaono Zydu Muziejus, WWW.Jmuseum.LT) with the center of tolerance and the only surviving from once adorned city 105 synagogue – Choral, or Taarat Ha Codesh (Vilniaus Choraline Sinagoga, 1899-1903.). It is worth noting that in the XIX century Vilnius was the main center of Jewish education and literature in Europe, but by the end of the Second World War from almost 100,000 people living here survived only 600, and today the Jewish Quarter who has once been here does not contain almost no other traces of this culture.
In five quarters, southeast towers Church of all saints (Visu Sventuju Baznycia, 1620-1631.) with bell tower (1743 g.) and adjacent ensemble Carmelitsky Monastery. Nearby are two pretty squares – Rudninku in northern I Satrijos Raganos In the east, in which you can relax after inspecting the historical part of the city.
To other famous historical monuments of the capital include lying already beyond the feature of the old city of Catholic Church of the Ascension of the Lord, or Catholic church of missionaries (VIESPATIES DANGUN ZENGIMO BAZNYCIA, MISIJONIERIU BAZNYCIA, 1695.) in the southern part of the former monastery (1739-1751.) with a beautiful green zone and three ponds adjacent to it from the southeast modest Palace of Prince Sangushko (Sangusku Rumai, XVI-XVII BB.), small Church of St. Bartholomew (XVIII-XIX centuries.) and the cemetery of Bernardians in Jupis (Uzupis, or "Vilnius Montmartre" – Beautiful semi-insulated city district, lying inside the raw wisen opposite Assumption Cathedral), Church of St. Rafail Archangel ARKANGELO RAPOLO BAZNYCIA, 1702-1735.) with the complex of buildings of the former monastery of Jesuits on the right bank of the Vilia Green Bridge, famous to his miraculous mercy of the Mother of God (Lukish Mother’s Lukish, XVIII in.) Church of Saints Jacob and Philip Sventu Apastalu Pilypo Ir Jokubo Baznycia, 1624-1727.), lying a little south, behind the Lukiskiu Aikste cute square, complexes of the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Dance and the Constitutional Court of the Republic, Cemetery Ross (Rasu Kapines, based in 1801 g.) – Many cultural and politicians of Lithuania, Poland and Belarus, Karai- Chapel Kenes (Kenassa, 1911-1922.) In the Moorish style, created as an exact copy of Jerusalem Vilnius Calvory (www.Vilniauskalvarijos.LT) With the Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross and 35 charts of the Cross Path, as well as a denoting border of the first fortress wall Artillery Bastion (Basteja, 1640 g.), or "Barbican", With the terraces of which the beautiful panorama of the historic center opens, and in the internal galleries is not bad Military Museum.
On the eastern outskirts of the city bouncer Church of Saints Peter and Paul.
Vilnius is considered to be one of the largest exhibition centers of Europe – one museums here are more than two dozens, and the number of private galleries and assembly is generally denial to count. The calling card of the city is perhaps, National Art Gallery (Nacionaline Dailes Galerija, WWW.NDG.LT), lying on the north shore of Villa, halfway between the Church of St. Rafail and the complex of Vilnius Pedagogical University. This is a modern multifunctional center for art and culture, within which 11 permanent galleries are open (painting, sculpture, graphics, photography, installations, video ware, cinema, documentary, and so on) Lithuanian masters of the XX-XXI centuries, as well as a first-class reading library.
Represent the exposition of ancient weapon in Artillery Bastion, Lodged our Cultural Center with Art Gallery, Museum of toys The southern foot of the Castle Mountain (Barboros Radvilaites, 7/2), Center for Contemporary Art, National Museum of Lithuania in complex Old and New Arsenalov, Museum "Palace of the Grand Princes of Lithuanian" (www.Valdovurumai.LT / RU) – the best meeting of the country’s artwork, Museum of money (www.Pinigumuziejus.LT) At the crossroads of Gedimino Avenue and Totoriu Street, excellent Museum of Energy and Technology In the complex of the city’s first power station on Rinktines Gatve, Vilnius art gallery (Lithuanian art of the XVI-XX centuries) in the Palace of Counts of Khodkiewicz, beautiful Museum of Church Heritage (www.bpmuziejus.LT) in the church of St. Michael Archangel south of the Church of St. Anne, the newest Museum of Military Equipment and Vehicles named after Vitautas Great (more than a hundred samples consisting of or armed with the Lithuanian army) in the eastern of the city, Museum of cars and transport Stasis Brundzy (The largest collection of Cadillac brand products in Europe), Theater, Music and Lithuanian Museum Museum near the church of Holy Katerina, Museum of Applied Art in old arsenale, Lithuanian Railways Museum On the second floor of the building of Vilnius station (XIX in.), Customs Museum In the northern part of the city (Jeruzales Gatve, 25), Museum of diamond, and Gallery of the modern Lithuanian art of Vladas Vizhunas And the garden of sculptures in the very north of the city, in the area of Jerusal (Lobio Gatve, 6).
In addition, Vilnius City Tour (WWW.VilniusCityTour.COM) organizes a bus tour of the city lasting two and a half hours, within which other attractions can be visited. Developed special tours to nearby monuments – to the historic city Trakai (TRAKAI, 25 km south-west of the city) – the ancient capital of the Grand Principality of Lithuania with the only in Europe island castle (XV in.) on Lake Gelweva – Now there is a museum, in Regional Park River Narian (www.Neriesparkas.LT), located 20 km north of the capital Manor Museum Lubavo (Liubavo Dvaras, XVI in.) with a unique stone mill, in the most beautiful town lying near the Belarusian border Madininkai (Medininkai, Medininkai) with the ruins of the castle of the XV-XVI centuries, in State Cultural Reserve and Archaeological Museum of Cernave (Kernave, 35 km north-west of the capital), which is part of the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Vilnoja Stone Sculpture Park In the town of Suderve (Suderve, 16 km north-west of Vilnius), as well as in the town Dubingai (Dubingiai, 50 km north of the capital) with the ruins of the Palace Radziwilles and the Churches of the XVI-XVII centuries.
Shopping in Vilnius
According to the abundance of large shopping centers, Vilnius is unlikely to give way to any other capital of the Baltic States, and there are many foreign tourists here and relatively low prices. Most of them lie outside the historic part of the city, which is all "Given on the otkuk" Traditional small shopping points, craft shops, art workshops and galleries. The exception is only perhaps the Gedimino Prospektas Avenue (Gedimino Prospektas), which goes to the north-west from the Cathedral – along its entire length you can find many shops and supermarkets of all kinds. The most famous shopping complexes of the Lithuanian capital – Akropolis (Ozo Gatve, 25), Big (UKMERGES GATVE, 369), Europa (Konstitucijos Prospektas, 7a), Flagman (Gedimino Prospektas, 16), Gedimino 9 (GEDIMINO PROSPEKTAS, 9), Ozas (Ozo Gatve, 18), Panorama (SALTONISKIU GATVE, 9), Parkas Outlet (Verkiu Gatve, 29) and Vcup (Konstitucijos Prospektas, 16). They are usually open quite a long time – from 7: 00-10: 00 to 22: 00-24: 00 Regardless of the day of the week, but on the weekend some work for an hour less.
- Gedimin Avenue
- City market
- Central post office
Shopping supplies antiques, Ethnic products from flax, products of decorative and applies, souvenirs, amber and jewelry, also abundant scattered throughout the city – their addresses can be obtained in the city tourist office and specialized sites. Most of them are open on weekdays from 10: 00-11: 00 to 18: 00-19: 00, and on weekends – from 10: 00-11: 00 to 18: 00-20: 00.
There are quite a few open trading platforms in the city, both the tiny markets of farmer products, souvenirs or antiques and quite large complexes. The most popular belongs to Gariunu Turgus (Gariunu Gatve, 70), Hales turgus (Pylimo Gatve, 58/1), Kalvariju Turgus (Kalvariju Gatve, 61), Kolekcionieriu Klubas (V. MYKOLAICIO-PUTINO GATVE, 5), Soostines Turgus (Kalvariju Gatve, 88), Tymo Turgus (Angustaiciu Gatve and Maironio Gatve Angle), Flower Market Verkiu (Verkiu Gatve, 29) and others. Almost all of them also lie outside the historic center, but are easily achievable either on foot or by public transport.