Cities of Iraq: Erbil
Erbil City (Arbil, Hauler or Heveller) is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan. Located in the interference at the foot of the mountains, Erbil is one of the oldest continuous populated cities in the world – according to archaeological studies, its history can be traced to the IV Millennium to N. NS., And the first mention of it are found in the documents of the XXI in. to N. NS. (then he was called Urbilum, or Arba Fig – "City of four temples").
Not far from Arbele (the famous Greeks called this), the famous battle of Alexander Macedonian troops and Darius III – Battle at Gavgamelah – Arbelah (331 g. to N. NS.). And it was here that the main trade of the northern part of Asia was held – the royal road, connecting the center of the Persian Empire with the Aegean Coast. Therefore, it is not surprising that on the territory of modern Erbil, you can find traces of the era of Sumer and Assyria, Parfia and Sasanids, numerous monuments of the period of the origin of Christianity and the formation of Islam (it was here for the first time celebrated the birthday of the prophet in 1207.), Mongolian and Ottoman Empires.
The main attraction of the city is the ancient Citadel Cala, or Kelai-Heveller in Kurdish, towering over the city by 30 meters. It is believed that the first walls at this place were built in the VI Millennium to the new era, and all the preserved buildings only added more and more new tiers to the old foundations. Within the citadel, on the square of more than 102 thousand. kv. Meters are concentrated and all the ancient buildings of Erbil, the dates of which are lost in the centuries (however, from many of them, only the ruins have been preserved, many are resets, because it is planned to create an open-air museum here). The second attraction of the city is Minaret Mudafaria, or a broken minaret (height 33 m, XIII in.).
An ancient indoor Kaisaria Bazaar, or Caisari, lying south of the Citadel (it is believed that the first trading ranks appeared here in the Assyrians, although the existing complex refers to the XVI-XIX centuries.), Ruins of Calisis-Agi fortifications (XI in.), Pretty pompous building of the Parliament of Iraqi Kurdistan and the nearby complex of ministries, a big mosque (2007.), Museum of civilization (a good collection of the subjects of the associate period), Ethnographic Museum and University named after Salah Ad-Din, under construction, a new Airport-City Business Center, as well as lying near the city of Waterfalls Kani Omar-Aga.
Reviews and studies of trips
My guide to Iraqi Kurdistan
From aesthetic point of view, in Iraqi Kurdistan, like on Mars, there is nothing interesting, nor amazing the imagination of ruins, nor the nature, no statues of Saddam, only stones and sand. Read more →