Cities of Iraq: Baghdad
The capital of Iraq, Baghdad is among the ancient cities of the planet – already in the XIX-XVIII centuries. to N. NS. Here, on the banks of the Tiger River, not far from the mouth of the Diala River, there were human settlements. Modern Baghdad was founded in 762 as the capital of the state of Abbasid, and already to the IX century, he turned into the largest cultural and shopping center of the Middle East, becoming the capital of the Arab Caliphate. Repeatedly destroyed by the invaders almost to the ground, the city every time quickly disappeared again, while maintaining, nevertheless, its radial structure. In 1638, the city is part of the Ottoman Empire, and in 1917 it is occupied by the British. In 1921, Baghdad becomes the capital of the independent kingdom of Iraq, and in July 1958 – an independent Republic of Iraq.
Old Baghdad is an unimaginable mixture of narrow curves of streets, markets and ancient global houses overlooking the Embankment of the Tiger. His main decorations are the old quarters themselves with their uneven cobble bridges, two-three-storey houses with fancy decorated windows and doorways. His historical monuments include Al-Mustanancing Madrasa (XIII in.), Abbasid Palace (XII-XIII centuries.), Mausoleum Zubaida (XIII in.), Minaret Suk Al-Gazal (XIII in.), Karavan-Saraj Han Marjan (XIV in.), Golden Mosque with Musa Musa Al-Qadima (XVI in.) and the famous bitch – market separating old quarters from younger areas. Outside the historical core of Baghdad, there are such unique monuments like the Ramadan and Bunni mosques (both XIV-XV centuries.), Al-Cadry’s shrine (al-Kederia, XI in.) with a huge dome (1534 g.), Al-Adamiya Mosque complex on the territory of Imam Abu-Hanifa Mausoleum (IIX-XIX centuries.), Mausoleum and Mosque al-Jailani (XVI in.) with a huge dome and luxurious library, Mausoleum Omar al-Sakhravardi (1234 g.), El Qadimine Mosque (al-Kadumine, XV-XVI centuries. – One of the most revered mosques in the Islamic world), Al-Javaat (XVI in.), Umm al-Mahar (Umm al-Maaryar, XX in., Minarets of this mosque rise to a height of 43 m, and the Koran stored here, as stated, was written by the blood of Saddam Hussein) and Al-Rahman (XX in.), Mausoleum Sitt-Zuumbrud Hatun (1202 g.), as well as a new caliph mosque with an ancient minaret, which belonged to the mosque of the Palace of Califa about a thousand years ago.
Also deserve attention to the gate of Vastani (Dafaria, Bab El Vastani, XIII in.) – The only preserved fragment of medieval fortifications of the city, ruins of the Khalab gate (1221 g.), Armenian Church of the Holy Virgin Mary, or Meskent (1640 g. – One of the oldest churches in Baghdad), Catholic Church of Saint-Thomas (1866-1871.) on Al-Hulaf Street, the residence of the Chaldean Patriarch and belonging to the same confession the temple of Our Lady of Sorrow (1838 g.) On Ras Al Gray, opposite the Seworch market, the Armenian Catholic Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (1898.) and the Syrian Catholic Church of the Saint Virgin Mary (1841 g.).
Despite the desire of the occupying authorities to destroy all monuments related to the Board of Hussein, you can still see the luxurious Palace of Ar-Rihab in the western part of Baghdad and all eight Saddam Palaces scattered throughout the city – Abu-Guraib, Al-Salam, Al -Syjood, Al-Azimia, Dora Farms, Radov and the Republican Palace (access to the territory of most of these colorful structures, which are real monuments of architecture and garden-park architecture, is prohibited, but to examine them from outside the fence is quite possible), buildings Parliament and governments, monument of revolution June 14 (1960 g), complex of the monument to an unknown soldier (1959.) and a monument to Shahidam (1983.) In memory of those killed in the Iran-Iraq war (both complexes have impressive museums), a monument to the martyrs east of the bridge of Jumhuria, a triumphal arch, two arcs of which are made in the form of a saber, cast from the metal of the Trophy Iranian weapon, as well as many other matting constructions of the mid-end period XX century.
Until recently, there were many museums in Baghdad, among which there were such world-famous collections, as an Archaeological Museum of Iraq, Iraqi National Museum (the largest museum complex in the Middle East with 29 permanent exhibitions), Iraqi Museum of Natural History, Museum of Contemporary Art, Museum Traditional Heritage, Museum of National Costumes and Folklore with Near Museum of Pioneers of Iraqi Art, Museum of Natural Science, Iraq Military Museum and Baghdad Museum. However, during the combat operation of 2003, a significant part of museum exhibits was looted, and at present their fate is unknown. Also in Baghdad there are many parks, among which the Park of Zerra (Zaura), Gardens of the Baghdad Island (60 hectares) with their numerous attractions, restaurants and the Moon Park, as well as the Baghdad Zoo in the Tiger Utility.
A kind of urban attraction has become the so-called green zone, within which all the dictator palaces have once been located. Nowadays, this is a carefully protected diplomatic and government area of closed quarters in the very center of the capital, throughout the perimeter, broken barbed wire and furnished by checkpoints. Visit the numerous villages of the Hussein family, his underground bunker in the Palace of Belving, the headquarters of the once-ruling bias party, numerous buildings of ministries and departments (many of them are performed on very original projects), hotel "Al-Rashid" and many other structures are often almost impossible, but the overall rhythm and lifestyle of this enclave of the new government living almost in full isolation from the rest of the city, they simply have no analogues in the world.
Always famous for its markets, Baghdad and now it can offer a lot of colorful trading areas, including well-known markets for medical schools (Kovelschikov), al-Baszazin weaver market, a major Bazaar of Schorje – one of the most important shopping centers of the city, shopping street Mustane with dozens of haberdashery shops, Women’s clothing and decorations, as well as dozens of small bazaars scattered almost all over the capital.
Reviews and studies of trips
Iraq from a bird’s eye view
On August 28, we were transferred from our base to Baghdad International Airport for Military Cargo International Airport. The second time again flew on American legend, Bell UH-1 helicopter "Iroquois". Read more →