Cities of Egypt: Giza

On the outskirts of Cairo, in Giza, A whole architectural ensemble is located, consisting of the three highest pyramids in Egypt.

The Pyramid of Cheops

The most significant and famous of the Egyptian pyramids – The Pyramid of Cheops (completed about 2590 g. to N. NS.). At the base, it represents a square with a side of 227.5 m, and its height during construction was 146.6 m (now the pyramid is 9 m below – the upper tiers collapsed), it covers an area of ​​5.3 hectares. The structure of the pyramid took about 2.3 million stone blocks by weight of 2.5 tons each, and the total volume of the pyramid is 2.34 million cubic meters. M. Separate blocks, according to medieval historians, were so accurately fit to each other, it was impossible to see even the blade of the knife.

Inside the pyramid of Heops there are no inscriptions or decorations. There are only three "Break chambers" – Rooms about 11 meters long, 5 meters wide and almost 6 meters high, with decorated granite slabs with walls. But the sarcophagus from the red granite is empty – neither the mummy of Pharaoh nor the funeral utensils are preserved. It is assumed that the pyramid was plundered in ancient times.

On the south side of the pyramid there is a structure, in shape resembling a ship. This is the so-called solar rook – one of five, on which Heops should have headed for the other world. In 1954. LED 43.6 m long, disassembled on 1224 parts, was detected during excavations. It is built from a cedar (without a single nail) and, as the traces of Ila testing on it, during the lifetime of Cheops, served him with a personal ship.

Pyramid Hefrena

The second largest pyramid – Hefrena, built 40 years later the first. Externally, it seems that the pyramid of Heffren is even more than Heops, but in fact it is a little less. Hefren Pyramid base side – 215 m, height – 136 m (as well as Heops Pyramid, it was 9 meters above). It is more clearly visible to the whole complex of facilities consisting of a temple in the valley, roads, "The temple of the dead" And the pyramid itself. The lower temple in which the 25 statues of Pharaoh once stood, is known for the fact that it was the mummification of Heffe himself.

Pyramid Micherina

Completes the ensemble of the great pyramids Giza Pyramid Micherina. Her construction was allegedly completed in 2505 g. to N. NS. Pyramid This is significantly less than its predecessors – 108 m at the base, the initial height is 66.5 m (today – 62 m). The only burial chamber of the pyramid is cut down in its rock.

Other pyramids

Great pyramids – only part of the extensive necropolis Giza. Next to them is a complex of several small pyramids, where the wives of the pharaohs are buried, as well as the tomb of priests and major officials. At the foot of the extensive plateau Giza there are numerous funeral temples, each of which itself is also quite interesting, and the famous large sphinx, cut down, like most of the huge statues of Giza, from a solid rock. Its length is 73 m, and the height is 20 m. It is believed that the Sphinx was "Built" During the construction of the pyramid of Hefren, and his face (almost destroyed by Mamli and Napoleonic artillery kernels) is the features of this Pharaoh – Brother and Headse heir. Every evening at the foot of the pyramid passes a colorful light-music presentation "Sound and light".

Around the city

30 km south of Giza lies another famous object – Saccara – Necropolis of the First Capital of the United Pharaoh Menesses of Egypt – Memphis. There are dozens of relatively small tombs, pyramids and temples. Famous this place made a unique stepped Pyramid Josra (The first pharaoh of the III dynasty, who lived 4700 years ago) – the most ancient of the Egyptian pyramids. This is not a classic pyramid – essentially, it was a combination of several tomb MastaB ("Mastaba" – Rectangular construction with beveled walls and flat top). Pyramid this named by scientists "Mother Pyramids", – The world’s first grand constructions from stone (base area 160×120 m, height 60 m). The main premises of the tombs are a series of cameras cut down in a rocky soil under Mastaba. In one of them stood sarcophagus with mummy, in all others placed things needed for life in the afterlife world, and the statues of the deceased. Now there is an accurate copy of the small statue of Goser (the original is located in the Egyptian Museum).

Cities of Egypt Giza

Unfortunately, from the very Memphisa, who flourished three thousand years, almost nothing left. But it’s still worth calling here, at least in order to watch the 20-meter Statue of Ramses II in a specially built pavilion or to see a local Sphinx looking tiny compared to the colossus Giza, but who is his forerost, or to just be in that place where this great civilization began.

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