Cities of Colombia: Bogota
Santa Fe de Bogota (Bogota) – Capital of the Republic of Columbia, Administrative Center for the Kundinamarka Department and the largest city.
The city lies on the banks of the Rio San Francisco River, in the extensive slab of Sabana de Bogota Plateau (the highest plateau in Colombia – the average height of it is 2600 m), at an altitude of 2650 m above sea level.
The city was founded by Spanish Conquistor Gonzalo Himenes de Kesada in 1538 under the name of Santa Fe de Bogota. Before the arrival of Europeans, the civilization of the Indians flourished here "Muisk" and "Chibcha", One of the fortresses of which is a buck, and has become the basis for the capital of the future Columbia. As everywhere, in new Spanish possessions, the Indians were quickly evicted with such an attractive place, and already in 1598 Santa Fe de Bogota becomes the capital of the Spanish-General General (from 1739 – Vice-Kingdom) New Granada. After gaining independence from Spain (1824 d), the city is renamed in Bogota, and by the end of the XIX century it becomes the major center of the revolutionary movement of both Colombia and other countries of Latin America. Despite its political influence and favorable geographical position, the development of Bogota was held back in sufficient transport links with the rest of the country for a long time, so by 1940 there were only 300 thousand. residents. Only civil wars 1942-1958. led to the mass escape of the peasants from the ruined war of the countryside in the capital. By the end of the XX century, industrialization and mass migrations led to the fact that the Bogota became the fourth largest city in South America and one of the most cosmopolitan capitals of the region.
Nowadays, Bogota is the quintessence of the entire Colombian. This is a city of futuristic architecture, bright and diverse cultural and intellectual life, luxurious colonial churches and brilliant museums. And at the same time it is a city of vagrants, slums, drug dealers and eternal traffic jams. It is this amazing mixture of prosperity and poverty, supercars and coagurgumes, ultra-modern offices and beggar quarters who makes the Bogota one of the most charming and, at the same time, chaotic and aggressive capitals of the planet. Modern Bogota is a complex and confusing network of narrow streets climbing on mountain slopes. Dozens of churches and other architectural monuments of the XVII-XIX centuries and other architectural monuments of the XVII-XIX centuries come above the old quarters, and the new areas are brightened with glass and concrete, the tower of banks and offices in the skies.
The central part of Bogota spread out between Avenida Himenes de Cesada and Calhe-7. Plaza-Bolivar is considered the main square of the capital (1807-1823.) With the famous statue of the First President of Colombia and Cathedral Cathedral (1572-1610., Rebuilt at the beginning of the XIX B, restored in 1998) with graves Gonzalo Himenes de Cesada, Hero of War’s independence of Antonio Narino and the most famous artist of the colonial era – Gregorio Vasquez de Arsa and Kebalos. South of the Square is the Presidential Palace, where daily at 17.00 Clear Cartridge Camery Ceremony is held. On the north side of the square there is a building of the Palace of Justice, restored in 1999 after the storming of the building by rebels in 1985. Also in the center and an adjacent old town district of La Candelaria, the Church of San Francisco (1567 g), Church of Santa Clara (XVII-XVIII centuries., Now there is a museum), Church of La Concepcion (XVIII century, now there is a wonderful storage of art items in style "Mudehar"), Church of San Ignacio (XVII-XVIII centuries., One of the most richly decorated churches in the country), Churches of La Terser (XVIII-XIX centuries.), Nourera-Señora del Carmen, La Candelaria and San Diego. The Honored Glory of the Casa de Poisa-Silva, Honored Glory (now there is a poetry museum), Fundasion-Alsat-Avendano, Palace de San Carlos, Casa del Marquez de San Jorge, Louis Libraries Angel-Arango, Colon Theater, Cedral Priada, Kapilla del Sagrario, Palacio-Arsobspal, Palacio Echeverry and Palacio de Narino (residence of the President of the country).
Nueva-Santa Fe district lies south of La Candelaria and is known as the perfect example of architecture of the end of the XX century. Nearby you can see the impressive complex of the National Archive. In the northern part of La Candelaria, near the intersection of Avenida Himenes de Kesad and Carrera-7, there is another area of old mansions, whose Palacio de San Francisco and the Church of La Terser, La Veracruz and San Francisco, Area Plaza de Santander and the University of Rosario on the Square of the same name, also included in the number of the best historical monuments of the capital. You can listen to street musicians in Plaza de Sanander, stroll along the Sunday flea market in Mercado de Las Pulgas or by the street market of emeralds at the intersection of Avenida Himenes and Carrera-7 (buy nothing here is not recommended due to the abundance of fraudsters).
Opposite the hotel "Teendama" The Church of Iglesia de San Diego is minted, near which you can find the Museum of Modern Columbian Art Musseo de Art-Moderno (the largest meeting in the country) and the National Library. Slightly north stretched the Independence Park, adjacent to the planetarium and decorated in the Moorish style of Plaza de Toros-La Santamaria, which is announced by the Colombian government by the National Monument and is used mainly for traditional corrid or various music events. In the north end of this area there are National Museum of Columbia (WWW.Museonacional.GOV.CO) with an extensive exposition on the history of the country, as well as Park-Sentral Bavaria – a wonderful example of modern architecture.
In the El Salitra area, many parks and open green sites are concentrated – this is the best place for sports and a relaxing holiday in the capital. The most cozy corners of the district are the Park Unidad-Deportal El Salitra, Botanical Gardens Hardin-Botaniko, Water Park, Palacio de Los Departes, "Children’s museum" Los Niños and Central Park named after Simon Bolivar (1966) – the largest park complex of the city. Here are several artificial lakes, cycling and pedestrian walkways, extensive green zone and a kind of green theater. A mansion is the Botanical Garden of Hardin-Botaniko-Jose Selestino-Mutis, in which more than 800 representatives of the National Flora grow. And north of Calhe-60, the historical zone is replaced by the Garden and Park area, in which many first-class restaurants, bars and modern shopping centers are concentrated. Here is the district of Usacken, which is a tiny village with cobblestone bridges, some miraculous surviving among the urban quarters.
Avenida Chile, also known as Calhe-72, is one of the largest business areas of Bogota. The most interesting place here is a shopping center "Granorrarr", Located next to the Church of La Porsinkul. A little east of the picturesque church of the Nourera-Senior del Pinar, and a little north – college collegio-gymnasio-modern, widely known for its beautiful buildings, and the fact that prominent politicians of the countries were trained.
In the area of the Chapinero, the Negotic Church of the Nourera-Senior del Lourdes and the theater of Theater Theater, in El Campina – the largest stadium of the capital of Nemoxio-Kamacho El Campin and an extensive sports and entertainment zone. In the new area of Carrera-15, there is a largest pedestrian zone of Bogota and many trading establishments, and La Zone Rosa is widely known for its restaurants and discos.
The buildings of the National Capitol deserve the attention (1847-1926.) In the classic Greek style, the National Conservatory (1910) and the National Symphony Orchestra (1936), the Colombian Academy, the National University of Colombia (open in 1867, one of the few South America, where serious teaching of the our language is conducted), hotel "Teendama" (1950-1953.), colorful factory building "Clark" (1953), spacious new areas "Antonio Narino", "Christiana" other.
Many museums are concentrated in Bogota, among which the Museo del Oro Gold Museum in the northeastern part of the Park de Santander (WWW.Banrep.ORG / MUSEO / ENG / HOME.HTM). This is the only museum in the world, entirely dedicated to works of art, where the largest collection of gold jewelry (approximately 35,000 exhibits, of which only one-third) is constantly exposed) of South American cultures. National Archaeological Museum, Museum of Arts and Folk Traditions, Museum of Traditional Art, Museum of Urban Development, Museum of Art of the Colonial Period, Museum of Anthropology, Museum of Science and Technology, Maritime Museum, Museo del Silo-XIX (Extensive collection of jewelry and paintings ), Moseo de la Ciudad (History of Bogota in photographs and large-scale models), Museum of Religious Art, Museum of Numismatics and House-Museum Simon Bolivar.
On the top "Hill Miracles" Serro de Montserrat is located the world famous monastery of San Vincent (XVII B), to which serpentines stairs and cable car.