Cities, divided by the border
In addition to the infamous Berlin, there are many other settlements in the world, the residents of which were on different sides of the border. Barbed wire, passing points, border poles – a strip of alienation between states in some places passed through gardens, central streets and even residential buildings. Sometimes it looks ridiculous, but mostly tragic. "My Planet" will tell about the peculiarities of life in divided cities.
Selmeny, Slovakia – Ukraine
In 1945, in the village of Selmeny, the Red Army lashed the state border between the USSR and Czechoslovakia right through the main street, gardens and gardens of residents. At the same time, some villages have a house stayed in one country, and a well and a shed – abroad. A pair of houses that prevented laying the bar of the barrier, and did not hit the demolition. Since 1947, residents have been divided yet thoroughly: a three-meter deaf fence. To communicate, the villagers went to the trick: throwing each other letters through the fence, and the news reported singing in the Hungarian, who did not understand the border guards: a decent garden, they reported to the birth of children, the death of relatives or upcoming weddings.
The border guards did not miss even members of one family: for example, a sad story about a seven-year-old girl tells in the documentary film "Border", which at the time of separation of the village was at the grandmother and remained to grow with her. Her mother watched his daughter through a barbed wire: she saw her in a wedding dress and with a newborn baby in her arms, but could not come. When mother died, the daughter could only look at the coffin.
However, sometimes residents were allowed to visit each other: a walking trail was opened for a short time in Khrushchev and Gorbachev thaw and in 2005, when members of the Human Rights Congress tried to convince the authorities of Ukraine and Slovakia to open the border for local. However, with the entry of Slovakia in the Schengen zone in 2008, the border was tougher: the inhabitants of the Ukrainian village are needed by a visa to visit the relatives in the Slavakian village of Velka Selmenzy. Recently, an old underground tunnel was discovered here, connecting the separated parts of the village, according to which smugglers transported tobacco products from Ukraine to Slovakia. Local residents consider the border with their Transcarpathian Berlin Wall, which, unlike the original, has not passed until now.
Nicosia, Greece – Turkey
If in other separated cities, the situation is quite peaceful, then in the capital of Cyprus Nicosia, two irreconcilable enemy get along: in the south – Greeks who formed the Republic of Cyprus and professing Orthodoxy, in the North – Muslim Turks, who proclaimed themselves in 1983 by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Peace in the city, as in all of Cyprus, for almost 40 years, the UN troops have been supporting the dividing "green line" between opponents. For the first time, Turks attacked Nicosi back in 1570: the siege turned into the seizure of the city, thousands of locals were killed, the Christian temples were rebuilt into the mosque. With the arrival of the British conflict, there was less. However, in 1963, there was another bloody rushing, the question arose about the division of Nicosia into two parts: Turkish Lefkush and Greek Lefkosiya. In 1974, in Cyprus came to power the radicals, dreamed of attaching the island to Greece. To prevent this, the Turks introduced the troops. Army landing and ethnic cleansing produced by the Turks in the north led to the actual division of Cyprus into two parts: and the Turkish republic officially international law still does not recognize.
The "green line" formed by the UN troops in Nicosia is running directly along the citadel, through the old city and the main shopping street of the Ledry. The citadel is divided equally: five bastions – in the Greeks, five – the Turks, one control the peacekeepers. The border is indicated by a concrete fence or homemade barrels from the barrels from a fuel, painted on both sides by the national-patriotic symbolism – Turkish and Greek.
Andrei Kashukov To get to the Turkish part, you need to go through the checkpoint that shares both zones, and pay for this pleasure € 25 – for this amount on the passenger car is given a pass for a month. Longer "subscriptions" cost more. At the entrance to the Turkish part, the first thing that rushes into the eyes is poverty. Dilapidated buildings, fewer cars and shops, bribed in places of the road, from which we already looked off.
Maxim Bespalov To Cyprus, we led by my passion for borders and abandoned places. And this is in bulk! In Europe, full of cities and villages, divided by the border, but Nicosia is the most interesting of them. After all, this city is the capital of two countries at once … Here it is – the border!
The following half an hour we explore this fence, moving from one barricaded street to another. In general, border real estate is considered to be in Lefcosh Neliquid. Everywhere where we were submitted was either a launch or some workshops. Having consisted, decided to go straight, through the walls of the Old Town, even though the tourist map ended there … Suddenly, turn out to have a ledra hotel. For a long time there was a single border crossing between two parts of Cyprus. And in the hotel itself since 1974 there is a headquarters of the UN peacekeeping forces. Even a week before the trip, I discussed the possibility of trying to get to the Greek half of the island ..
In the Turkish bandwidth, we were puzzled and issued to the passport insert, which was not given at the airport, putting a stamp about the departure already in it.
– Only the Greeks do not show it, – the border guard advised.
And here we are on the neutral strip, in the buffer zone.
It turns out that it’s not terrible here.
We enter the gate, separating the zones of the influence of the Greeks and the Turks, look around.
"Carefully! You enter the territory occupied by Turkey!"- laid out shallow tiles on a stone fence.
Come to the Greek post. Greek-Cypriots do not recognize the separation of the island and the border on it, and therefore they are not border accumulations on the transitions, and the police posts are. At the entrance here simply check the passport, and when you exit, do not stop at all.
– We have such a thing here, – we start our conversation. – You can go to you without a visa?
– How without a visa? – Greek policeman is surprised. – Well, show your passports!
He flips our documents, finds in them stamps with Erdzhan and disapprovingly.
– these stamps! You arrived in Erjan, and this airport no one recognizes! Sorry, we can not let you! Stamps!
– And I have an open Schengen visa, – Serves Fomka.
– A! Visa! Well, you can pass with her! She "beats" stamp from Erdzhan. And you – contact us with Storm – we can not let, sorry.
I give a fomka my camera with a request to make a pair of frames on that side. Fomka leaves somewhere in the depths of the European Union.
Valga / Valka, Estonia – Latvia
Valka in Latvia and Valga in Estonia – twin cities with mirror coat of arms that are now separating from each other only a shallow dry groove and barely noticeable and border poles. Until 1920, it was a single city of Valk, who was once part of the our Empire as part of the Lifelard province. Five years ago, Vote and Valka divided the low fence – the border was held right in the center of the city, along the streets and even for the fear of kindergarten, and to get from one part to another, tourists needed visa. However, there were no interests for residents of the divided city of large inconveniences: as members of the European Union, they could pass through the CAT several times a day, since sometimes worked in one part of the city, but lived in another.
In 2008, Estonia and Latvia entered the Schengen zone, the borders in the city were removed, the customs point remained to be empty, and the authorities began to develop the Latvian-Estonian Neighborhood program. Officially, there are two languages in the city, however, a significant part of the population speaks our, since 2003, a our-speaking newspaper "Valk" is published, whose goal "through the newspaper to unite residents of the border areas of Latvia and Estonia is published, to give the necessary information necessary for each other". From January 2014, when Latvia will go to the euro, another unifying factor will work: a single currency.
Olga Fedotova, Native Narga (Estonia) I was born in a roll in Latvia, when I got married, we moved to live in Estonia to her husband, so I can compare. Since the USSR, everything has moved here: a lot of mixed families who divided the border. On the checkpoint – huge queues, checking bags, printing in passport, in general, nightmare. There was a law on which, without having a residence permit, it was possible in another state only 180 days, and some had this: family in Latvia, work in Estonia, 180 days left and then choose: or family, or work. Some sold accommodation in one place and bought in the other, someone simply ran the border in the wrong place. We still have citizens and non-citizens, so there are regular passports regularly for all of them, since they are stamped at the border. Print citizens did not put. With the European Union, the borders removed, everyone sighed with relief. We go free and how much do you want. When some big holidays, fairs, city days, both states take part. In Estonia, the standard of living is higher in all areas, they are closer to the west, and in Latvia – an order of magnitude lower, more Bardak and Corruption, there are still a bribe of police, there is no bribe, in Estonia. Here is an example you: we have a river in two cities, her shore landscaped: made tracks for bicycles, rollers, walkways for a walk, beach, playgrounds, benches. In Estonia, 5 km was landscaped – according to Eurostandards, and in Latvia made from the strength of 500 m: and the tracks are wooden and nothing special. Huge difference! So all the Latches go to us to relax, ride on great, rollers, in the winter – on skis, also it seems like for two cities I was treated, and nothing was done in the roll.
People already know where you can buy cheaper: something cheaper in Estonia, buy there, something in Latvia (for example, a dentist is three times cheaper), so everything goes … But in general, there is no particular separation in Schengen, that is, the border is not felt; There is a language barrier, but helps spoken our and young people – English.
The idea of laying the border through the houses belongs to enterprising restaurateurs: when at the late hour of the Netherlands, it was necessary to close the institution, they transplanted clients for a table in the Belgian part where such a ban did not exist
Barley, Belgium – Netherlands
Probably the most bizarre separation of the city happened between Belgium and the Netherlands: Town Barle turned out to be chopped into small pieces belonging to two countries, the border is not on the rivers or field, but directly along the bike paths, streets, houses and restaurants; Sometimes the entrance door or store window turns out to be divided. You can go half an hour to cross the border 50 times. Belgian part, called Commune Barley Hertog, is 24 Plot: The smallest size from the garden is 26 acres, 20 of which are surrounded by the territory of the Netherlands, and three are adjacent to the Belgian border. Dutch part – Barle Nassau community: including seven enclaves located inside Belgian territory. Such an amazing division of the city happened as a result of trade in land and redistribution between Flemish feudals in the 1200-1650s. The idea of laying the border through the houses belongs to enterprising restaurateurs: when at the late hour of the Netherlands, it was necessary to close the institution, they transplanted clients for a table in the Belgian part where such a ban did not exist.
Cafe, located in two states at the same time, is in the city and now. Some "cut" houses have become residential: as a result, the owner sleeps in Belgium, and it prepares and eats in the kitchen in the Netherlands. Belonging the house to a particular country, as a rule, is determined by the state in which the front door is located. Separated buildings have two addresses and two plates with different flags. The state border is not denoted in Barle everywhere, but only in the city center: places are lined with white tile crosses, places – metal washers. In the rest, you can find out where you are only by GPRS. In the city – two mayors, two garbage trucks are driving down the streets: Belgian and Netherlands, two national telephone companies work, however, residents are allowed to call each other not by international, but at the local tariff. However, the inhabitants do not interfere in any way, they quietly go there, communicate in different languages, eat Belgian chocolate and Dutch cheese and use other advantages of life at the border: for example, recently gasoline in Belgium cost cheaper, and in Barle-Hertogue Stood turns. Netherlands went there on Sundays, when all restaurants were closed in Barle-Nassau.
Blogger Andrei Sapunov compiled a rating of the most interesting divided cities based on the experience of his travel
1st place. Narva (Estonia) – Ivangorod (Russia)
The type of two parts is still recently the same united city, separated by the border river, with two closer fortresses, reminiscent of the boundaries that existed at this place many hundreds of years ago, – what can be charming and male? Occashing in Narva on the hill from the observation platform, from where the fortresses and the border bridge were perfectly visible, which people from one geopolitical education went here and here, I sat, probably from one and a half hours, sat, watched this picture of the world order and rejoiced that finally I drove to such an unusual place.
2nd place. Zgögetts (Poland) – Gerlitz (Germany)
Once a single German city, now divided into a large German part and small Polish. Cities connect two bridges for which you want to go again and again. One bridge pedestrian, and the other is a car, which still has the customs buildings, now inactive. This city was not bombed in war, so his center with ancient beautiful buildings close to the border river. Just a few steps in one direction – the German-speaking world begins, everyone starts to speak German, a few steps to another – and already around one Polish words. There is no transition zone between languages, which is greatly surprised. The boundaries of physical is not left, and the border of the language is visible extraordinarily clearly.
Miscellaneous here is all – and architecture, and people. And even shops in Poland work up to 10-11 pm, and in sleepy Germany – up to 6-7.
3rd place. Mogilev-Podolsky (Ukraine) – Attacks (Moldova)
Towns connect the automotive bridge over the Dniester, by which you can walk on foot. Mogilev – Europe, though the bribed, and attacks – real Asia with mud and crowds of Roma (it was here that one of the centers of the Gypsy population in the USSR). Contrast is huge.