Brunei: new development horizons
Sultanate Brunei – an infrequent guest on the pages of our print. The author of the published article is a specialist in the problems of the Malay Archipelago countries – fills this gap and makes it possible to familiarize themselves with a wide range of readers with the history, socio-economic and political position of this state.
The official name of the Sultanate – Negar Brunei Darussalam – Translated from the Malay language means the state of Brunei Abode of the World. And this name is quite consistent with the real situation in the Sultanate. Indeed, there are no firewood volcanoes here, as in many other Muslim countries, terrorist acts, there are no bloody clashes on religious or ethnic soil, there are no tropical diseases, no outbreaks of bird flu are not fixed and even the Terrible Tsunami bypassed this small country.
Brunei form two seasons to the sea of semi-clove and over 30 small islands in the north of Kalimantan (old Borneo’s old name) with a total area of 5765 sq. KM. They are inhabited by 372 360 Brunetsev (2005.). For one square. km There are almost 65 people. Not far from the Brunei Gulf, where the Brunei River flows, the capital is located – Badar Seri Begavan from 236 thousand. Her inhabitants. Other major cities of Sultanate – Seria (the center of the oil and gas industry) and Kuala Belat. Approximately two thirds of the country’s population – Malays and representatives of other indigenous tribes. The most significant diaspora is Chinese (15%). The remaining 15% is mainly the immigrants from nearby countries. The number of subjects and residents of the Sultanate varies significantly, for it is possible to obtain citizenship only after living in the country for at least 20 years or after marriage with the subject of the Sultanate and the birth of a child (for a woman).
Polianklava on Kalimantane
Approximately two thirds of the population profess the official religion – Islam, which is characterized by rigoriness and moderation (1).
Half of the country is covered with jungle, but a significant part of them is a well-groomed forest in the form of indulged landscapes. The concern of the environmental authorities allowed to preserve many types of flora and fauna, almost disappeared in other parts of the world. For example, a nosed monkey, like a kangaroo for Australia, is the main attraction of the Brunese fauna. The sacraments of untouched nature attract the attention of many scientific institutions, including the British Royal Geographical Society, Scientists and Employees of the London Museum of Nature History, the Brunese Museum, the Center for the Study of the Jungle in Bel’long (Brunei) and a number of DR.
The first written references to Brune are found in ancient Chinese sources, where the descriptions of the Sultanate by the merchants who called it "Puni" or "Bullets". Approximately from the XIV in. In the coastal areas of North Borneo began to spread Islam, introduced by Arab and Indian merchants and preachers.
In the north of Borneo Islands in the XIV-XVI centuries. A large state education has been formed, the power of which was spread to a significant part of the island, as well as the Suul Archipelago and a number of other Philippine Islands. Borneo Indonesian Island is called Kalimanthan, which translated from the Malay language means a large river.
Behind the first Spanish and Portuguese conquestors, the Dutch and the British were followed to take possession of an important shopping center and its natural wealth, who fragmented the empire, conquering local tribes and establishing their board. Under the pressure of numerous conquerors of the Sultanate gradually lost its lands. Ultimately, the modern Brunei has been preserved less than 1% of the territory of the once extensive state education.
In 1888. This part of O.Borneo became English Protectorate. In 1906. Britain appointed his resident to Bruhern, who officially considered the Sultan adviser.
The first constitution was adopted in 1959. Even before finding Brunhem Independence. The symbolism approved by it remains unchanged, while a complex process of changing the Constitution is held for a number of years.
In 1969. After the elections, the opposition demanded changes in the monarchist system. As a result, the Legislative Council was dissolved, and the opposition party Brunei is prohibited.
January 1, 1984. Sultan X.Bolkiov announced the birth of the sovereign state of Brunei Darussalam. This day has become a national holiday.
In 1984. Brunei was adopted by the UN, as well as in the Association of States of Southeast Asia (ASEAN). The country then entered into the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Trade Organization, Europe -Azia Forum. In March 2005. Sultanate became the 191st member of UNESCO.
The form of the government’s historical, political and sociocultural roots is unique in Bruherni. Its main components are Islamic religion, the system of Muslim values, Malay culture and customs, as well as the traditional foundations of the Board of the Malay Principality, including the rule of the monarchical authority of Sultan. Many European and our researchers continue to consider the current form of government as an absolute monarchy. H.Bolkhah believes that there is a special form of democracy in Brune, which manifests itself in an open and direct access to the government, which predetermines the possibility of eliminating excessive bureaucracy. This provision confirms the Brunei political scientist Muhammad Shaippudin, who believes that "The Brunei model may differ from classical system of parliamentary democracy, but in practice it really works better. This is facilitated by the small size of the country, its welfare, as well as the nature of the people and the Sultan himself"(2).
However, it is impossible to underestimate significant changes in the Brunese society in the direction of modernization and democratization of the forms of the Board. In his speech on June 15, 2004. NS.Bolkiov announced preparing changes in the Constitution 1959. In the same year, he signed amendment to the Constitution, which provides for the restoration of the Legislative Council and the establishment of the election parliamentary system. The proposed draft amendments to the Constitution reflects the desire to lead to a certain conformity of its position with the traditions, customs and practice of Brunei, as well as with modern realities. In March 2004. Sultan prescribed and led to the oath of the first deputies of the Legislative Council, in which 30 members are appointed by Sultan, and 15 are elected by citizens of the country. However, the Legislative Council is mostly attached to only the deliberative functions, although some of them are very close to parliamentary.
Gradually, and cautiously authorized a policy of changes from above, while strengthening their authority. Changes in Brulya are practically fully supported by the only political party – the Brunei National Party of Unity.
Sultan X.Bolkia is the Prime Minister, Commander-in-Chief Armed Forces and Minister of Defense, as well as Minister of Finance.
Cabinet of Ministers is one of the deliberative bodies when head. Approximately the same nature of the authority has the Secret Council, the Council for the Affairs of the Preconsession and Religious Council.
Along with the post of Prime Minister there are 11 ministries (departments). The post of Minister of Foreign Affairs occupies the younger brother of Sultan Mohammed Bolki. In May 2005. Impaired significant changes in the Cabinet. : The post of senior minister in the office of the Prime Minister, as well as three new ministerial posts: Minister of Energy, the Second Finance Minister, the Second Minister of Foreign Affairs. Thus, at present, the cabinet includes 14 ministers and 10 deputy ministers. It was the third change in the composition of the government in 21 years after the independence of Brunhem.
Reparatively small scales of Brunia predetermine the modest dimensions of state and administrative structures, which in some cases leads to the attachment of functions in their own character. So, in the conduct of the state investment agency, there is not only consideration of investment applications, but also control over the use of foreign country reserves.
Lord of Cases
Sultan X.Bolki graduated from the Malaysian Institute "Victoria" In Kuala Lumpur and the prestigious Royal Military Academy in Sandherst in the UK. After the father’s renunciation – Omar Ali Siphuddin from the throne on August 1, 1968. aged 21 years.Bolkia became the 29th monarch in the Dynasty of Bolkiakhov, founded in 1405 g.
In 1997. In the State Investment Fund established in 1994. To support the national business and headed by the younger brother of Sultan Jheferies, large embers and waste were opened. Guilty of the embers of Jefferies and his colleague Amedeo were removed from their posts and are given to the court.
The foreign policy of the Sultanate is determined by the principles of proclaimed January 1, 1984. Declaration of Independence and Head of State. The main ones are the desire to maintain friendly relations with the peoples of other countries with mutual respect for independence, sovereignty, equality and territorial integrity; non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries; Commitment to the maintenance of peace, security and stability in the region of Southeast Asia.
Brunei seeks primarily to strengthen cooperation and friendly relations with neighboring states. At the same time, not only with the countries – members of ASEAN, but also with the states of the Asia-Pacific region. In 2005. In Wellington (New Zealand), the first transatlantic agreement on the strategic trading partnership Brunei, New Zealand, Singapore and Chile was signed. By agreement that came into force from the beginning of 2006., Trading barriers will gradually decline, up to their full elimination by 2015.3 prepare agreements with these states on cooperation in the field of environmental protection and protection of intellectual property, as well as scientific cooperation. It should be noted that Brunei is one of the founders of a peculiar new bridge in the Asia-Pacific Area, Binding the country of Latin America, Pacific and Asia.
Largely due to such policies the international authority of this small state continues to increase. In the brunher itself, it is interpreted as personal merit X.Bolkiaha. At the same time, it is constructive and largely a long-range position in a number of international organizations, primarily in the OIC, as well as in regional organizations. In its international activities, it comes from the principles of solving problems through negotiation process, consultation and cooperation.
In 2000. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit (APEC). In 2004 and 2005. Sultan Brunei took part in the work of APEC, ASEAN, OIC, the 12th Economic APEC Summit in Santiago (Chile) (issues of international trade and security). In 2004. He participated in the meeting of ASEAN members in Laos, where an agreement was reached on the formation of a strategy of ten states aimed at cooperation and partnership with the countries of Northern and South Asia, as well as Australia (*).
Sultan’s visits to various countries of the world contribute to the development and bilateral relations. In early 2005. He visited Singapore and Australia on a working visit, where issues of further development of bilateral and regional relations in political and economic fields were discussed, as well as security issues. In April 2005. NS.Bolkiah participated in the work of the summit in Indonesia, dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Bandung Conference, for which many of the leaders of non-aligned countries arrived.
At international forums there are other members of the ruling family. Princess Masno is a second person in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 2004. At the meeting of ASEAN Foreign Ministers in Indonesia, on behalf of its state, he signed a declaration on the eradication of the humiliation of women in ASEAN member countries.
In turn, Brunei visited in 2005. Prime Minister of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic of Bunnhang Vorachit and Chairman of the People’s Republic of Hu Jintao, Prime Minister Pakistan Shaukat Aziz.
Various conferences and symposia of ASEAN and APEC are held in Brune. For example, in 2005. The meeting of the ASEAN working groups on the development of agriculture and cooperation and the APEC Symposium, dedicated to the development of small and medium-sized businesses in the countries of the region.
Sultan Brunei is considered one of the richest people in the world. Many journalists write about his indiscrect wealth and its surrounding. Almost always in materials about Brier, the State Palace of Nourole Iman is described in detail, the area of which exceeds the territory of the Vatican, there is information about the karats of gold covering its dome, as well as the dome of mosques, or data from the Guinness Book of Records, where X.Bolki passes through several nominations. All these wealth belong not only to Sultan, but the whole family of Bolkiakhov. For example, Jefferi built for itself the largest private residence in the world of 50 thousand. kv. m, besides, he owned three more dozen palaces. At H.Bolkiah has a very capital-intensive hobby – Collectibles "Rolls Roisov" (he has 165 copies) and racing cars (about 300). The subject of its special passion and pride is a collection of cars "Formula 1". He managed to collect all the genuine championships, who defeated races, starting from 1980. His addiction to high speeds is manifested in piloting the aircraft.
At the same time, the Supreme Ruler and his family members consider it necessary to maintain wide contacts with their subjects. According to tradition, the family takes guests for three days in the Palace of Nourole Iman during the holiday Idul Fitri (holiday trip). On this holiday in 2004. Palace visited more than 97 thousand. human. Not less guests were in 2005. At the reception on the birthday of the Supreme Ruler, the number of invited representing various layers of society exceeded 4 thousand. human.
After a terrible tragedy as a result of earthquakes and tsunami in the countries of Southeast and South Asia in December 2004. Brunei immediately provided substantial material and humanitarian assistance to the most affected by the element of the province of Ache Nangeru Darussalam (Indonesia). The celebration of the New Year in Sultanate was replaced by a special prayer, which expressed sorrow and sympathy for victims of natural disaster. In February 2005. Sultan first of the heads of the world visited this province.
Forming the internal political course, Sultan pays considerable attention to the spirit of the spirit of tradition, as well as the norms of Islam in all areas of the economic and social life of the country, strengthen its cohesion.
Following centuries-old traditions, in August 1998. Sultan officially proclaimed his son Al-Makhtadi Billha Kron-Prince, giving him ancient royal chris. Preparing for the role of the future state ruler, he entered 1995. In Oxford Center for the study of Islam, then graduated from Magdalen’s Diplomatic College at the University of Oxford, where he studied foreign policy, international law, foreign trade and finance. In his speeches in various parts of the country, he speaks of the importance of education, mastering modern technologies, which are designed to determine the progress of the state. At the same time, he, the future monarch, draws attention to the preservation of commitment to the national traditions and religious values of Islam.
The origins of prosperity and well-being
Architects of modern Brunei are the Sultans Omar Ali Simipuddin and Hassanal Bolkie. With the name of the first, the formation of relations with foreign oil companies, as well as the foundations of the current socio-economic policy. During the reign of the second, current Sultan, the country joined the path of modernization, transformation of the national economy and social sphere.
As of 2003., Public product was evaluated (taking into account the Parity of the purchasing power of the Brunese dollar) at 6, 84 billion. Doll. USA. Power income amounted to 23, 6 thousand. Doll. USA (4). The rate of economic growth in Brawn in the present century is one of the lowest in Southeast Asia, but this does not mean stagnation.
In the structure of GDP in 2003. The share of the agricultural sector was only 1, 7%. Such a modest share of agriculture determines the need to import to the country to 80% of food (5). The manufacturing industry is still represented mainly by textile and sewing enterprises, as well as few enterprises for the production of electronic products and single plants.
The main wealth of the country-hydrogen resources. Confirmed oil reserves (2003.) accounted for 1, 35 billion. Barrels, and Natural Gas -385 billion. cubic. M. In Brune in 2004. approximately 180 thousand. Barrels of oil per day and 10, 9 billion. cubic. m natural gas per year. For several years, Brunei has been a major producer of liquefied gas. The exploitation of hydrocarbon resources was carried out on the basis of established limits so that the upcoming generations could also use them.
In 2003. Oil and gas accounted for 53, 4% of GDP, and other sectors of the economy -46, 6%. In addition, this sector provided almost two thirds of the country’s budget revenues. At the same time, the oil and gas sector is considered as a semi-state. With such a definition, you can agree with some stretch, as members of the ruling family are participants in joint companies with foreign companies.
In 1998. The policy of limiting hydrocarbon raw materials has been revised. After three years, the restructuring of the oil and gas industry began, which is carried out, taking into account the prospects of new oil fields at deep-water sections of the seabed and on the coastline in two districts – Moir and Tutong.
The largest oil companies in the world began to justify in Brune at the turn of the 20s of the 20th -30s. last century. Now there are subsidiaries of the French company "Total" and "Brunei Shell Petroleum" (BSP), which is a joint venture of the Brunese government and Angellyland TNK "Royal Dutch Shell". Natural gas mined and recycles a joint company "BRUNEI LNG" With the same participants and a Japanese corporation "Mitsubisi". In addition, the company "Total" Also leads the extraction of natural gas. In Brune, one of the largest and modern plants for the processing of natural gas in liquefied. Foreign and mixed companies serve the Brunei Pioneer Company "MASHOR GROUP OF COMPANIES". In recent years, she has become not only a solid partner, but also was able to carry out its activities in Oman, Malaysia and Indonesia. Its work is incessantly diversified and includes logistics, supplies, maintenance of installations for cooling the production of liquefied gas, construction of industrial facilities, etc. The company’s management plans to further expand foreign activity and build up their investments in long-term joint projects.
Investment climate – incentive for business development
A very favorable investment climate has been created in Brune, in particular, here are almost the lowest taxes on the company’s manufacturing activities in the region. At the same time, export operations and personal income are not subject to payments.
The main source of replenishment of the budget – income taxes (up to 30%), which are charged from state and mixed companies. State budget surplus in 2004. amounted to 724 million. Doll. USA. For sultanate subjects, an important factor is the low level of inflation (less than 1%).
An important stimulus for the activities of foreign companies -stable position in the country, as well as a good condition of infrastructure, ranging from energy and ending roads. According to the calculations of the Council of Economic Development, by 2008. Capital investments in the national economy in the amount of 4, 5 billion should be attracted. Doll. USA.
Brunei’s financial capabilities predetermined his desire to more actively enter into the global financial market and approval on it as a global financial center. This was the main motive under the establishment in 2000. Brunei International Financial Center (BMFC), which is included in the structure of the Ministry of Finance. Its primary task is servicing the specific scope of financial services (banking, finance, insurance). He is also intended to promote the influx into the country of the newest technology in the banking sphere and the formation of national professional personnel. A number of rules approved defining the Islamic nature of the Center’s activities. Laws on the procedure for the activities of international and mixed companies, international trusts, including joint funds, insurance, and the law on the ban of money laundering.
Provided by BMFC, significant tax reliefs predetermine its high competitiveness, and therefore prospects. As a result, by mid 2005. 3500 companies were registered in the center.
A very reliable international legal framework for the activities of trust funds, protecting the activities of individuals and major corporations, based on the provisions and norms of Islam. Considerable attention is paid to charitable activities, in particular, – the creation of charitable trust funds for environmental protection and historical monuments.
Provisions on the activities of various funds, including Islamic, provide for the creation of Sharia Councils designed to determine whether the activities of these funds are insulting the Islamic religion. Detailed licensing safety provisions. The Insurance Act takes into account not only modern requirements for the insurance case, but also the Islamic Law of Takaful – the law on compliance with the principles of mutual benefit and interest.
A favorable investment climate encourages many companies to consider Brunei as their regional and even global base.
Brunei intends to continue to develop a banking and financial system with Islamic specificity. This should attract bank and financial capital from countries with moderate Islam, where there are certain communities in the legal systems of these states with Brunhem.
The formation of the BMFC not only contributes to the improvement of the investment climate for foreign banks and funds, but also meets the main task – the creation of an international Islamic money market together with Malaysia, Indonesia, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and a number of other Muslim countries.
Announced in traditional speech July 15, 2005. NS.Bolkiechom new reforms caused a positive reaction of the country’s financial and business community. So, in the editorial article of the magazine BMFC is argued that "Following the market and creating on its basis success, in all likelihood, will be favorable for Brunei".
Bruna development paradigm is embodied in medium-term plans. In 2005. The implementation of the 8th five-year plan was completed, one of the main goals of which – the creation of industrial enterprises and the development of small and medium-sized businesses. Assembly production of buses and trucks is established in the country, enterprises of the electronics industry.
In the private sector from 6817 registered enterprises only 2% refers to large (t.E. The number of more than 100 people employed on them), 26% – to the middle (from 51 to 100), 23% – to small (from 6 to 50 people) and 49% – to microenterprises, on which it works from one to five people. 45% of all employed in the National Economy (6) work in the partnership sector.
Policy in relation to small and medium-sized enterprises is determined by the Ministry of Industry and Natural Resources, considering the main diversification of their activities and raise the role in the national economy. Assistance programs have been developed for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, including surface-free and microcredit schemes. In certification and standardization, an important role is assigned to the Council for the Control of Export, allowed by Sharia Products (Halal).
At the same time, like most South countries, Brunei seeks to create in the country the foci of a new economy, which is promoted by scientific centers of the country. Brunei Institute of Technology in August 2005. held an international conference on the topic "Creation based on the science of society through engineering and technology". Domestic and foreign entrepreneurs, technologies, scientists, representatives of financial institutions and state agencies took part in her work. At the same time the exhibition was deployed "Technex-2005", which demonstrated the latest global achievements in the field of civil engineering and technology. Sungay Liang Industrial Park is created in Bruherni, where enterprises of the chemical industry are being built. Elastomer and aluminum production factories will be built in Moir District. The emergence of such enterprises largely predetermined the course for the diversification of the economy and its exist. Perhaps some of them will be the basis of new industries in Brune.
Brunei has the necessary conditions for the development of tourism. The creation of the tourism industry, including ecotourism, is also associated with the diversification of the economy. Ecotourism is combined with the most comfortable conditions that local hotels are famous for. Tourists are provided with a wide selection – from modest bungalows for ecotourists to seven-star "Empire Hotel & Country Club", incoming the best hotels in the world.
One of the famous tourist facilities is the village on the water. Despite the invasion of modern technical means in its equipment, it has retained many traditional features that Magellan’s expedition chronicle hit at one time. Already in those days 25 thousand lived in it. people who represented various indigenous peoples; Nowadays in the houses on the water there are 30 thousand. Man, a significant part of which is represented by the descendants of the then settlers.
Bruniu succeeds in sufficiently successfully fit into regional tourist schemes that are coordinated at ASEAN level. In particular, in joint projects of the countries of Yuva, Bruneu will have to provide air traffic for tourists, routes of which cover Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand.
New features arise for Brunha in connection with the creation of accelerated economic growth centers in the region, or a new economy. ASEAN member countries develop a megaproject to create an East Assean area of accelerated growth in which Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines are involved. Within the framework of this project, new marine routes are already being created, which will allow to develop economic relations between various provinces of these countries, as well as almost doubled the time and money spent on the transportation of goods and travel of people. In addition, new opportunities will appear to enter the markets of Japan, China, USA and a number of other countries.
Social Package for Sultanate
In Brawn 29% of the workforce (41, 6 thousand.) in 2002. accounted for the public sector, and 71% (100, 6 thousand.) – for private. Every Sultanate Sultanate can count on benefits provided by the state. Social package provides subjects of the Sultanate very obedient existence. There are no such concepts as a subsistence minimum, minimum salary, unemployment. Income tax is not charged. Education, up to the highest, and the possibility of obtaining it not only in the homeland, but also in other countries, is provided by the state. Intelligentsia make up graduates of many universities in the world, mostly English, Australian, Canadian, Singapore and Malaysian. But in the most brogh, the highest school received due. University of Darussalam has a rich library, a modern campus, not to mention the beautiful laboratories and modern technical and electronic learning tools. At the University, the Brunese Institute of Technology and a number of other higher educational institutions, along with the Bruneitsa of Professor and teachers from various countries of the world.
In recent years, significant changes in the education system occur in Brune. The main task is to provide the younger generation such education, which will prepare it for future economic development, when, possibly, hydrocarbon resources will be exhausted in a large part and the need to search for new sources of maintaining high-level welfare. At the same time, the requirements and quality of education are constantly increasing. So, it is believed that good knowledge of English, starting with the first stage, can be provided by the teacher who, after graduating from the highest educational institution, will live a certain time in any English-speaking country. A significant place in curriculum is assigned to other languages, especially Arabic.
Sultanate’s subjects enjoy free medical care. However, in some cases a symbolic fee in one Brunese dollar (1 US dollar is equal to 1, 7 Brun. Doll.). For the construction of the house, the acquisition of the machine (and sometimes even to buy a helicopter), they are provided with loans on preferential terms, right up to interest-free.
Other social indicators are very optimistic: high literacy, low-child mortality, and most importantly, high life expectancy. It is largely due to both the good environment of the environment.
For the Brunetsev, the careful attitude towards its nature. Healthy ecology, well protected and contained tropical forests, rich flora and fauna, pure reservoirs give reason to call this small state "Green heart Borneo".
However, a significant part of the country’s population is not only people who have no citizenship, but also numerous migrants, which allows the Brunese authorities to cope with the lack of labor. The socio-economic situation of these segments of the population is much worse than indigenous people.
Development of our-Brunei relations
Brunei’s diplomatic relations with Russia were established in 1991. The benevolence of Brunei to Russia manifested itself repeatedly, starting from 1995., When the question of the full-scale partnership relations of the our Federation with ASEAN, as well as when Russia’s accession to APEC, participate in the work of the OIC. At the same time, the dialogue between both countries has been developed successfully. At the same time, a common approach to important regional and international issues was revealed. The first meeting of the President of Russia in.Putin with Sultan X.Bolkiechom occurred in 2000. At the APEC summit. At this meeting, mutual interest in the development of ties between the two states was shown. V.Putin invited H.Bolkiah to visit Russia.
The visit of Sultan to Russia took place in June 2005. During the meeting with.Putin discussed a wide range of issues related to the development of trade relations, investments, military cooperation, as well as exchange in the field of science and high technology. The most important result of the visit was the signing of a joint our-Brunei Agreement, which predetermines the development of cooperation and interaction for the prospect.
Opportunities for the establishment and development of our-Brunei trade and economic relations are extensive. It may be bilateral trade, and participation of Brunia in investment projects in the Far East of Russia, cooperation in the field of high technologies, finally, training for the Brunese students in universities and institutes of Russia, cooperation of scientists. An important aspect in establishing relations can be not only the signing of the necessary agreements, for example, agreements on the promotion and mutual protection of investments, but also the development of direct contacts with leading organizations of the business world of both countries.
The established our-Brunei contacts at the highest level open a new page in the history of our bilateral relations and will undoubtedly contribute to the strengthening of Bruna’s position in the international arena.